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soccer robot complete tutorial with code
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This post is the second part of the previous tutorial we have started about making Soccer robot for RoboCup.In the first part, we have discussed the mechanical parts.In this post, we will see about the Electronics part.
So here is the link for the previous part:

ELECTRONIC DESIGN 

Electronic Parts

  1.  Battery
  2.  Power distribution circuit
  3.  H-bridge
  4.  Arduino
  5.  NRF-module
  6.  Boost Converter
  7.  Ball detector circuit
  8.  Solenoid

Battery

The battery is providing source to each component and it is selected as per requirement of
the current. We have selected the lipo battery for our robot because it’s a light weight and
provide us our required current. Our Battery consist of 5 lipo cells each cell having
3.7volts total of 18.5volts battery having 5000mAh current.
  • Output voltage 18.5V
  • Initial Current 5A Max
  • Discharge (c) 25
  • Max Charge Rate (C) 2
  • Weight (g) 640
  • Length(mm) 146
  • Height(mm) 51
  • Width(mm) 42

Power Distribution circuit

In the robot we needed 3 different voltages to operate our devices first our battery contains
18.5 volts which are needed to operate motors secondly we needed 12 volts to operate our
motor driver IC IR2104, dribbler motor and for booster circuit because the input of our booster is
12 volts. In last we needed 5 volts to operate our controller Arduino and for ball detector
circuit.

For this purpose, we design two regulators for step down voltages by using LM7812 and
LM7805 the circuit diagram are as follow.
12-volt regulator circuit consists of
  1.  LM7812
  2.  diode
Power Distribution circuit
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5volt regulator circuit consists of
  1. LM7805
  2. diode
  3. capacitor

Arduino Development Board

I am not going to discuss the basics of Arduino here.you can read about Arduino in these following posts.


Wireless Communication using nRF24L01

The wireless communication is done between various nodes. Since we are at the node of between
receiving data from GUI, therefore wireless module is used. The controlling of the robot is being
done by using a joystick. The module which we used for wireless communication is nRF24L01.

I already discussed complete details about Nrf and Arduino interfacing.Read the detailed post of nrf24Lo1+. Arduino codes for Nrf are also available in that post.

Solenoid


A solenoid consists of a coil of insulated wire. We have to design solenoid to provide strong inner
the magnetic field in order to fulfill our purpose of the kicking mechanism. For this purpose Teflon
the material is used on which copper is wounded when current flows through the coil then strong
the magnetic field is produced within the core due to which kicking mechanism of the robot will
work.
One more post is available for kicker mechanism and solenoid.You can get the design files from there.

specification of the solenoid:

  1. Wire gauge 30 AWG
  2. Input voltage 230 V
  3. Number of turns of Cu wire 1800
  4. Resistance/meter of Cu wire 0.339
  5. Diameter of Teflon 8mm

Ball Detector Circuit

To start the dribbler we have designed the ball detector circuit which is mounted on the sides of
dribbler by using IR sensor. When there is no object the receiver receives the signal from
the transmitter and when the ball comes to our robot the signal will be disconnected the receiver will
not generate the output signal and then this logic is inverted through using the NOT gate and it will
generate a signal to operate the motor driver for the dribbler. The circuit is shown in the figure


Read the Detailed post of Ball detector circuit with a circuit diagram.
Ball Detector Circuit
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Booster

For the kick, we have to energize our coil and to energize the coil we needed high voltages for
this purpose we have designed the boost converter which converts the 12 volts into 220 volts.

See the Detailed post about Booster 

Motor Driver

To control the direction and speed of motor we have to use motor drivers.
I have done this part using L298 is and also with L298 module.
See the related post on this part.


PROGRAMMING AND ALGORITHMS

The first step was to control robot manually by using remote and wireless communication this step
was done by using Arduino and Nrf we first manually control the robot and check its parts are
properly working and seeing its direction by controlling motors.
Here is the Code for Arduino boards:

Code:

The Code is quite long so I'm not going to past it here.If you need the file then coment below.

Concluding Statement:

After these steps, we proceed to the Artificial intelligence, after controlling manually robot. First, we
serially communicate it with GUI through NRF module. One end of NRF is interfaced with
Arduino UNO R3 and on another end we used Arduino MEGA 2560.
in SSL vision the camera captures the image of the robots playing and ball by using color pattern
embed on them. This information is broadcasted through WIFI modem. This then is received by
our PCs and this information extracted from the file provided by management of the event
named as ‘protobuf.’ This information is further utilized to calculate and make the strategy for
our robots on the field and predict the movement of opponent and ball using Line equations and
orientation. This smart intelligence is used to make a strategy. This strategy is used to calculate the
directions and PWMs of all the motors mounted on each robot. Then transmitted to our robot
through NRF modules. For this AI server, we are using multi threading in C# to process for 2
robots at the same time.
I hope you understand the method and sequence of steps.Half of the things I have covered in separate posts so that's why I didn't discuss everything here.
In coming post, we will see how to setup the field for an autonomous robot.Installation of SSL software and testing with example code.
Follow for upcoming updates as still there is much more left about an autonomous robot.so we will cover up everything in coming posts.
I hope you enjoyed it...keep making robots...!!!


electronic components tutorial.How and why to use
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Basic Electronics Tutorial

Hey, Welcome, Everyone...!!!
Here We have another exciting Tutorial series.How and Why to use.In this tutorial series, we will learn about Basic Electronics Components, IC's, Transformers and motors, Sensors/Modules, Controller boards, Tech gadgets and all other Engineering and Electric/Electronics components.




This is the very first tutorial of the series.we will learn about the basic components in this post.After basic components, we will move towards the advanced components.
The ideas behind this tutorial series are to learn quickly and easily about the components. When we use any component in our project, we must have the basic knowledge about the component.The pinout configuration, basic circuit diagram, the actual purpose of the component, graph, electrical symbols and necessary calculation formulae. searching over the internet about the pin configuration, circuit diagrams, and basic functions takes a little time.We don't have enough time to read the large data sheets and unnecessary stuff.Just the basic knowledge about the component and How and why we use the component.
Today we will learn about the following three basic components.

  1. Resistors
  2. Potentiometer
  3. Switches
This is the Video-based Tutorial so you have to watch the video.As I'm not going to write much about the tutorial.Everything has been explained in the video.Only the necessary and downloading stuff will be discussed here.

resistors,potentiometer and switches tutorial
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Resistors:

all about resistor function symbols color codes and graph
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Potentiometers:

how to use potentiometer ,types circuit diagram and function
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Switches:

switches function types and symbols
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Watch the Video for Explanation.This video contains the necessary information about the components.The objective of the component, types, symbols and other basic information.
Stay Connected for more and upcoming Tutorials.I hope you liked it.
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel for latest Video tutorials. 
Stay happy and Stay motivated....!!!
all engineering tutorials the basic electronics
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Effective Communication Skills

effective presentation tips
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Welcome everyone to the (Make it mech) new series. There is a need of strong communication skills especially for Engineers to become a professional for the industry. This is the most common problem that I have seen in many people. The biggest gap between the technical education and soft skills.
How to give an effective presentation, How to prepare yourself before the interview, How to communicate effectively and most importantly how to present your idea effectively.
There are many subfactors in this and there are lots of things to consider. The communication skills, self-motivation, Decision-making skills, Leadership qualities, Teamwork and problem-solving skills, Brain storming, Creativity, Critical thinking and Time management. We will focus each and everything with some techniques. With the Engineering perspective, we must have some strong communication skills that are the need of industry.
"There are millions of competitors out there, How would you differentiate yourself from others"
What Unique Qualities do you have?
So start Exploring yourself with unique qualities.Explain your strengths and create a strong exposure.


Here is the list of Contents:

Contents

  1. How to Introduce Yourself
  2. Speech/Presentation Opening techniques
  3. Presentation/Speech main body
  4. How to Conclude/End the Speech/Presentation

1-How to Introduce Yourself

How to introduce yourself in speech or presentation.Well, we don't need to Introduce especially when we are in college or graduate level and giving an academic presentation. I'm not talking about the commercial or about business presentation.For students, there is no need to give an introduction to who you are and why you are here.In many cases, I have seen that the students introducing their selves in a most Usual way that my name is XYZ and my topic is this...Don't ever do this.for effective presentation we don't need to be in a straight forward way.There are some techniques.
I'm not saying don't ever call your name in some cases we need this but for academic we don't have enough time for presentations nor we have that credibility level to introduce so start with a technique and Engage your audience.

"The Starting 5-10 minutes are the most most important and Crucial time for your presentation" Prepare in a way that you can make a strong impact in these precious minutes. Your whole presentation depends on these starting minutes.Once you grab the attention then the flow will give you a way to an amazing end.
Now let's see what are the Opening techniques.Start your speech/Presentation with these techniques to engage people and make a flow for the rest of the presentation.

2-Speech/Presentation Opening Techniques

There are some techniques for present opening.Don't start presenting in a boring way.If your start will not be interesting you can not make a good impact through out your presentation.
So always start with an interesting thing to Engage people at the first.
Here are some opening techniques.Use any of to start your presentation.
  1. Start with a Story Line
  2. Use Rhetorical Devices
  3. Quotes or Famous words
  4. Questioning
  5. Audience Review
  6. Personal Experience
  7. Facts or Figures
These are some techniques that I remembered now we will see more in coming posts.Let's discuss how can we use these to make an effective presentation.

1-Start with a Story Line

Start with a story is a good way to relate your topic to an interesting story. Remember this important point when you are using this technique.Your story will not be long.It should be smaller just an overview what you are relating to.Just a story line doesn't start telling a long and boring story. The story line should be related to your topic and after that, you can easily relate your topic with what you were telling. The story could be anything, Your personal life experience, any historical event or anything.



2-Use Rhetorical Devices

This is the most effective way that I have found.I also use this technique in my presentations.Now, what are Rhetorical Devices?The Rhetorical Words/Sentences have some types.
For Example:  
  • Rhetorical Sentences
  • Similar sound words
  • Repetition of words/Adjectives 
  • Rhetorical Questions
There are other types also You can find through a search engine.I'm not discussing in a business communication language or Academic perspective. These techniques have some names.

Rhetorical sentences

The Rhetorical sentences are those effective sentences that use the same sentence three or more times.The best example is the famous speech of Martin Luther King: He uses 
"I have a Dream "  In Before every sentence He uses these words I have a dream that....I have a dream that ....I have a dream that.....three or more times to give a professional and effective exposure.
We can use any of words we can make our own effective sentences like It is our responsibility to make presentations effective.It is our responsibility to create a quality content and It is our responsibility to create a good impact on society. Well, this is just the example that I have created now.You can search some example or create your own effective sentences according to your topic.

2-Similar Sound words

The similar sound words are the second thing in rhetorical devices.Use similar sound words at the start to make a good flow. Like This is the best explanation of my feelings now rate it shake it or break it. There are other good examples out there and it's easy to make during making the presentation so this is a just example you can use it in a better way.

3-Repetition of Words/Adjectives

Use adjectives in a speech.They have almost same meanings but creates a good impact. like good great and best.Whatever it could be.Find some good examples on that.

4-Rhetorical Questions

Rhetorical Questions are those questions that have been asked but don't need an answer.The understood questions.These questions are used just for creating an effect to the presentation. Like 
Do I need to kill myself? The answer is surely not for me I think ...may be yes... but these are the questions that require just attention not answer.

3-Quotes or Famous Words

This is the common way of starting the presentation.This is the easiest way of opening a speech.Use any famous Quote related to your topic.Use I a way that completely relates your feeling and with your topic.

4-Questioning

This is another great way of starting a presentation.Ask a question to the audience, the audience will engage if the question is interesting.Ask about anything like Did you that ...?? or Do we have any technology expert present here. anything like this.

5-Audience Review

Ask for Audience review Like do you agree with this....or Do you believe that the world is going to an end?? anything like this but interesting.

6-Personal Experience

Share your personal life experience about the topic in an effective way. Tell in a way that people will listen to you and feel that you actually faced that scenario.

7-Facts and Figures

Start with the real facts and figures Like every single second there are 100 Suicide attempts made or anything interesting about your topic.This was not the real fact I just give an example.

Now, these were some techniques that can be used to make a presentation an effective and engaging start.
The Next thing is the main Body of the speech

3-Main Body

The main body of the speech has the Complete quality Content. Structure your presentation in a way that gives a short overview of the sub-topics or contents then start Explaining each and everything.Explain in a precise way.Don't make things boring.We will discuss the structure of the presentation in coming posts. 

4-How to Conclude/End a Presentation

The End of the presentation should not be sudden.Recall all the main points or give an overview what you have discussed.
"The Ending words are the most important words mostly the people Remember only the last words"
You can also use any quote or story as well to end up the speech.Or use any final saying words and people feel that your presentation is going to an end.
We will discuss this in detail in another article.This article is going to be a little longer so we will see the rest of the things in coming posts.

Well, these are some tips for Effective presentation.I have skipped many other subfactors.we will discuss these later.Hope you liked it.
Stay Connected for more interesting ideas and tips.
Stay Happy and Stay Motivated....!!!





pid arduino advance line following robot


Modified PID Algorithm Implementation

Hey, Welcome to the second Tutorial of Line following Robot. As In the previous Tutorial we have just covered the basics and important things for making Line following Robot.As In the previous tutorial I have just explained the best ways to make a line follower instead of choosing wrong components and wasting your time in  extra activities we have to make it to the best effective and simplest. So always choose those things that are less time consuming but Effective. So before moving towards the next must Read the previous Tutorial about Line follower. I'm not going to explain the components or the basic concepts for line following.First Read this Tutorial:


Well in this Tutorial we will discuss about the PID concept for Line following ROBOT.And I named it the modified PID algorithm.Before this intention I was planing to write a  tutorial about complete and complex line following Robots.But now I'm not going to do this.I have spent some hours surfing over the internet about the PID line following Robots.And What I found is that there are already too many guides not just guides but a complex PID guides available for making arduino code.They are not easy to modify according to the robot requirement.
Recently I have won First prize in  line following Robot competition.Later I will upload the video of the event in coming posts. My Robot Wins the final Round and the amazing part is that I haven't used any complex code. I just modify some points and skipped the complex part.Now my intentions for this tutorial is that I will only explain what I experienced and what is simple and effective.So we will just see the PID concept  and adopt the best part in that for Line Follower.
So here are the contents:

Contents
  1. Necessary things for making line following Robot
  2. Introduction PID algorithm 
  3. How to implement PID algorithm
  4. PID Algorithm Parameters
  5. Modify PID for line following Robot

1-Necessary things for making line following Robot

As I have already explained how to make smart line following Robot so we will not discuss each and everything again.And We have discussed the components list,What sensor do we need to use for smart and fast line following robot and How motor and H-bridges work.Read these previous tutorials for Component selection and how the code and sensor works in the line following Robot case.

MOTOR DRIVERS AND DUAL H-BRIDGE L298 ARDUINO MODULES INTERFACING


I have recommended IR modules sensor for making line following Robots.The QTR pololu sensor array will work perfectly good but again I will recommend the separate modules sensor for making line followers.By this We have more choices according to line width when we use separate sensors.But if you feel more comfortable with QTR sensor array you can use it.The sensor array is expensive but the results will be good.
Here is the list of components:
complete guide of arduino line following robot with code files


2-Introduction to PID algorithm 

The Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controler is the control algorithm and mostly used in industrial control.  PID  algorithm allows engineers to operate them in a simple and straightforward way . The name shows PID,The three words  Proportional ,Integral and derivative.
PID algorithm control diagram

The Proportional Response:

The proportional component  in PID algorithm is the difference of the set point of the system and the process variable. Now this difference is called Error. The proportional gain (Kp) is the ratio between output response and the error signal.

The Integral Response

Integral in PID is the sum of the error term over the time. If the result is a small error the integral component will increase slowly. Now the integral term will continually increase over the time unless and until the error is going to be zero, so the ultimate effect is driving the Steady-State error towards zero. The difference between the process variable and set point is the Steady state error.

The Derivative Response:

 The function of derivative component is to decrease the output if the process variable is going to increase. The derivative is the rate of change of the process variable. The Increase in the derivative time (Td)  will make the system to react strongly and to make changes in the error term.This will increase the overall speed. The very small (Td) the derivative time is used in most practical systems.Derivative Response is sensitive and highly sensitive to the noise and in the process variable. If the feedback is noisy or the control loop rate is very much slower, The control system will be unstable due to derivative response.
PD controller concept


3-PID Control Algorithm for Line following Robot



  1. In a case when robot is deviated to left it then pushes to move towards right
  2. In a case of deviation towards right it is forced to move towards left
The accomplishment of this task gives a robot to follow the zigzag path.By this method the speed we were giving was much less as error getting by using PID. And this technique was also not reliable for the turns. And To apply this algorithm it was better to use the error calculation method after calculating error giving motor its proportional value and then it changes speed and in turn it gets back to the line.
e.g.-the deviation ranges between -3 to +3.
        
                                  


Kp is the proportionality constant it will give negative value when robot is be towards left of the line then the right motors gets slows down.Now this is a good practical approach for many cases. But not suitable because of these reasons:


  1. It affects accuracy of the robot when the robot is not much effective it gets back to mean position very slowly.
  2. To solve this problem we have to increase its proportionality contact but it will then overshoot when robot comes to mean position due to inertia-cross to other side then again overshoot results in deviating result.

4-PID Algorithm Parameters:



PID is a feedback mechanism.The three components that are:



  1. : error
  2. : time of deviation
  3. : overshoots
Efficiency of the PID algorithm is totally based on these three parameters these helps to reach at mean position much faster.




These three constants have been set by hit and trial method experimentally.
  1. Kp
  2. Ki
  3. Kd
Kp: Using only kp parameter the robot will be applied and give the results as the classical Line following algorithm.

Ki: Because of ki robot is forced to follow mean position.

Kd: kd does not allow the robot to perform any deviation.

PID with line follower

5-Modify PID for Line Following Robot

To implement PID algorithm for arduino code there are few important things.Well I'm going to highlight some points.
The first thing after initializing pinout configurations:

  1. Define your sensors in an array:
         const int irPins[5] = {A1, A2, A3, A4 ,A5};

      2. Further define your sensors as a binary function:

         int irSensors = B00000; 

      3. Define
     
         int errorLast = 0; 
         errorLast = error; 

This is the point where an array stored the last error value and when ever the robot leaves the line it then come back to the line by last stored value.

The last point is that use the error calculating equation to control motor speeds;

if (correction >= 0) {
    motorRSpeed = maxSpeed - correction;
    motorLSpeed = maxSpeed;

 else if (correction < 0) {
    motorRSpeed = maxSpeed;

    motorLSpeed = maxSpeed + correction;

I know I just give some code snippets that will be really difficult to understand the whole concept.



PID with line follower robot tutorial


Use this equation to control the speed of  motors.Well here is just the PID understanding.
Read this complete post about PID that I have written for PIC controller.See the post the code will help you to understand more about the concept.


PID ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION (PID CONTROLLED LINE FOLLOWING ROBOT)

Conclusion:

Well this tutorial is going to be more about PID.My intentions was to explain each and everything but the tutorial is going to be little lengthy so I will explain my code in the Next post. There are very few steps left to explain for a perfect smart and fast line following Robot.
Stay connected and Subscribe to our YouTube Channel for video tutorials.
Stay happy and stay motivated...!!!